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A Brief History of Pet Food

Pet Food Ingredients

What to Look For

CLICK HERE for a list of all-natural pet foods available at Doguroo.

INTRODUCTION TO PET NUTRITION

Dogs and cats are carnivores. According to the American Heritage Science Dictionary, carnivores are generally meat-eating mammals with large, sharp canine teeth and large brains. This includes dogs, cats, bears, weasels, raccoons, hyenas, etc. More specifically, dogs are facultative carnivores, meaning that they thrive on a diet of mainly meat but benefit from some plant matter. Cats on the other hand are true carnivores and rely on a diet of virtually all meat with no grain or plants for optimal health. So why is this biology lesson important to our understanding of pet food? Good question, read on…

A BRIEF HISTORY OF PET FOOD

It’s easy to take modern pet food for granted. After all, most of us don’t remember a time when our pet’s food didn’t come in cans or conveniently bagged. But reviewing the history and origins of pet food can go a long way toward helping us understand the state of the industry today.

In 1860, James Spratt first introduced processed dog food. Spratt’s Patent Meat Fibrine Dog Cakes were made from wheat, beet root, vegetables, and beef blood. This concept of feeding dogs processed, mass-marketed food versus table scraps quickly became popular in England through the end of the 19th Century. By 1890, commercial dog food had spread to the United States, and a controversy over pet nutrition, similar to the one that rages on today, was born. In fact, many pet owners at the time made a strong argument that table scraps (usually consisting of things like meat, connective tissues, bones, organs, and possibly a few left over veggies) had kept their dogs healthy and happy for years.

During the Great Depression of the 1930’s, dog owners were forced to look for cheaper ways to feed their pets. Less raw meat was fed, and more grains and cereal products were introduced into home diets. Many marketers of new dog products even boasted that they were able to utilize waste products such as grain hulls, sweepings, and meat unsuitable for human consumption.

Then, in the 1950’s, the Purina Company discovered the extrusion process. Extrusion produced small pellets of food that, when bagged, were convenient and more marketable than ever. While this production process continues to be used by commercial as well as independently-owned pet food companies, the quality of the ingredients vary significantly between these two groups of producers.

The pet food industry has grown exponentially since it’s 19th Century beginnings and the pet nutrition controversy is still going strong. The independent producers, many of whom were dog owners looking for better food to feed their own pets, offer pet parents high quality (and yes, very affordable) food choices. Ingredients are the foundation of each food and are at the core of the pet food debate: Should carnivores really be eating corn? Should we be feeding our pets meat that we wouldn’t eat? Are artificial preservatives, colors, and flavors really worth the elevated cancer risks? These are all excellent questions.  Let’s take a closer look at pet food ingredients.


PET FOOD INGREDIENTS

There’s been a flurry of attention paid to pet food packaging over the last few decades. Companies have become very good at marketing their brands. But let’s not lose sight of what’s really important – the ingredients inside that shiny, colorful, zip-sealed bag.

Pet food contents are monitored by The Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO). Foods labeled as ‘complete and balanced’ must meet one of two nutrient profiles or pass a feeding trial. While these guidelines are better than none at all, they don’t necessarily address the quality of the ingredients themselves. Some food companies combine filler proteins such as corn with vitamin packs to meet AAFCO requirements. In addition to whole meat proteins, you want to look for more real food vitamin sources like fruits and vegetables, and fewer manufactured supplements. Here’s a sample ingredient panel from a popular commercial pet food. We’ve highlighted some questionable ingredients. Remember that ingredients are listed in descending order by weight.

Popular Commercial Brand Ingredient List:

corn, soybean meal, beef and bone meal, ground wheat flour, animal fat (bha used as a preservative), corn syrupwheat middlings, water sufficient for processing, animal digest (source of chicken flavor), propylene glycol, salt, hydrochloric acid, potassium chloride, caramel color, sorbic acid (used as a preservative), sodium carbonate, minerals (ferrous sulfate, zinc oxide, manganous oxide, copper sulfate, calcium iodate, sodium selenite), choline chloride, vitamins (vitamin E supplement, vitamin A supplement, niacin supplement, D-calcium pantothenate, riboflavin supplement, pyridoxine hydrochloride, thiamine mononitrate, vitamin D3 supplement, folic acid, biotin, vitamin B12 supplement), calcium sulfate, titanium dioxide, yellow 5, yellow 6, red 40, BHA (used as a preservative), dl methionine.

Here are the definitions of a few of these ingredients:

Corn: An inexpensive filler protein. Corn is the source of many food-related pet allergies and is generally difficult to digest. Further, a carnivore’s teeth are designed to tear meat instead of grinding corn.

Animal Fat: Obtained from the tissues of mammals and/or poultry in the commercial process of rendering or extracting. Animal fat has no specified source such as chicken or beef fat, making it an unknown source of fat.

BHA: BHA/BHT are short for Butylated Hydroxyanisole (BHA) and Butylated Hydroxytoluence (BHT), both of which are artificial chemical preservatives. BHA and BHT have been banned from human use in many countries. In the US, they are still permitted in the use of processed human and pet foods. These chemicals were linked to the Menu Foods pet food recall in 2007.

Animal Digest: A material which results from chemical and/or enzymatic hydrolysis of clean, undecomposed animal tissue. No specific animal source.

Propylene Glycol: A colorless, viscous, hygroscopic liquid used in antifreeze solutions, hydraulic fluids, and as a solvent. Used as humectant is semi-moist kibble to keep it from drying out.

Hydrochloric Acid: The solution of hydrogen chloride in water. It is a highly corrosive, strong mineral acid and has major industrial uses.

Coloring/Flavors: Artificial flavors and colors are humanly-contrived additives used to enhance a product and to appeal to the human eye. These ingredients have no nutritional value, and make the product appear better than it is.

CLICK HERE for Natura’s Ingredient Dictionary. This is an excellent tool that will aid in your understanding of what’s in your pet’s food.

WHAT TO LOOK FOR

Knowing what ingredients to avoid is the first step. Spotting quality ingredients is the second half of the puzzle. Here are some guidelines to help you select healthy pet foods, followed by another sample ingredient panel – this time, the ingredients are from one of the foods that we highly recommend, Innova.

Whole, Recognizable Protein Sources: The first few ingredients should be meat protein sources like chicken, chicken meal, beef, beef meal, lamb, lamb meal, etc.

Whole Grains (exclusive of grain-free foods): Unprocessed grains like barley, oatmeal, and brown rice.

Fruits, Vegetables, and Probiotics: Fruits and vegetables are naturally-occurring sources of several vitamins & minerals, and a great source of fiber. Probiotics aid in digestion and boost the immune system

Innova Ingredient List:

Turkey, Chicken, Chicken Meal, Ground Barley, Ground Brown Rice, Potatoes, Ground Rice, Chicken Fat (Preserved With Mixed Tocopherols, A Natural Source of Vitamin E), Herring, Apples, Carrots, Cottage Cheese, Sunflower Oil, Dicalcium Phosphate, Alfalfa Sprouts, Eggs, Garlic, Taurine, Sodium Ascorbate, dl Alpha Tocopherol, Freeze Dried Enterococcus Faecium Fermentation Product, Freeze Dried Lactobacillus Acidophilus Fermentation Product, Freeze Dried Lactobacillus Casei Fermentation Product, Freeze Dried Lactobacillus Plantarum Fermentation Product, Potassium Chloride, Calcium Carbonate, Zinc Proteinate, Iron Proteinate, Beta Carotene, Niacin, Calcium Pantothenate, Copper Proteinate, Manganous Proteinate, Thiamin Mononitrate, Pyridoxine Hydrochloride, Riboflavin, Vitamin D-3 Supplement, Vitamin B-12 Supplement, Folic Acid, Calcium Iodate, Biotin.

ROTATING FOODS

Imagine having eggs one morning for breakfast.. then having eggs again for dinner.. then eggs the next morning. Imagine repeating that cycle for the rest of your life. Not only would you quickly become sick of eating eggs, but your body would soon start to miss the variety of nutrients found in other foods. While eggs are a great source of protein, humans rely on a variety of food sources for balanced nutrition. Your dog needs variety in a similar way.

Like humans, pets enjoy and benefit from variety. There is no one food that has is all or is perfect for your pet. In fact, feeding the same food over your pet’s lifetime could actually be detrimental to their health. Varying the type of food and rotating among proteins allows for a more diverse and complete micro-nutrient intake. Variety also exposes your pet to exciting tastes and textures that will keep them interested in mealtime.

Rotate your pet’s food (the protein source and occasionally the all-natural brand) every 3 months for:

  • A balanced nutrient intake
  • Reduced risk of food allergies
  • New tastes and textures to retain interest

Need help finding the best foods for your pet? Ask a member of our Pack or receive detailed recommendations when you submit a Pet Food Recommendation Form.

 

It’s easy to take modern pet food for granted. After all, most of us don’t remember a time when our pet’s food didn’t come in cans, or conveniently bagged. But reviewing the history and origins of pet food can go a long way toward helping us understand the state of the industry today.In 1860, James Spratt first introduced processed dog food. Spratt’s Patent Meat Fibrine Dog Cakes were made from wheat, beet root, vegetables, and beef blood. This concept of feeding dogs processed, mass-marketed food versus table scraps quickly became popular in England through the end of the 19th Century. By 1890, commercial dog food had spread to the United States, and a controversy over dog nutrition, similar to the one that rages on today, was born. In fact, many pet owners at the time made a strong argument that table scraps (usually consisting of things like meat, connective tissues, bones, organs, and possibly a few left over veggies) had kept their dogs healthy for years.

During the Great Depression of the 1930’s, dog owners were forced to look for cheaper ways to feed their pets. Less raw meat was fed, and more grains and cereal products were introduced into home diets. Many marketers of new dog products even boasted that they were able to utilize waste products such as grain hulls, sweepings, and meat unsuitable for human consumption.